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provide ion. All specific exceptions to COApps derive from the base exception. Appendix A provides a description of common objects that consist of various classes and interfaces, each with its own characteristics and methods.

It is to be understood that other changes can be made. The backplane applet is layered on top of the standard applet methods: init ; stard Stop ; and run.

Via init , the backplane applet gets the COUSer user context object. CO User configuration and application entitlements provided in the User context are used to configure the application toolbar and inbox applications. When the icon on the application toolbar is clicked, the launchApp method dispatches a specific COApp.

The dispatched application can then be used for inter-application communication, including retrieval of inbox data. protected Vector availableApps Vector of avaulable apps by name, vector of strings protected COStat globStats Global Statistics object protected COAppEntitlement globStats Global entitlements object protected COLog globLog Global configuration object. Returns: the COBackPlane. Public void init Initializes the backplane, establishes the session, gets the user context object, and simultaneously starts the toolbar and inbox application by initializing the container object.

Overrides: init in class Applet. Public void start Starts the backplane, possibly the background thread for backend communication. Overrides: start in class Applet. Public void stop Stops the backplane, killing all background threads used by the backplane. Overrides: stop in class Applet. Try to wait until all running COApps are closed.

Overrides: destroy in class Applet. Parameters: appName-The character string indicates COApp. Returns: Correct if the named COApp is currently running. COApp Is running, COBackPlane will try to send it. Returns: The named COApp, or null empty if it cannot be sent.

In this version, The applet can be sent from the URL if any in the appDescription, but if not, it will be sent by the normal method. Note that the applet sent through the URL will not return to COApp, so the function will be null. Parameters: appDesc-COApp application description. The name consists of the full package name, not just the class name. The COBackPlane allows the application to be dynamically loaded and dispatched as needed with the full package name, so the full package name keeps track of the application.

Returns: List of available COApps names. Null if not set. Overrides: getLocale in class applet. In the class component. Returns: -1 currently has no active apps. Invoke « processMessge  » on the running application. Parameters: message-COParm encapsulates the message to be passed. Throws: COException If all apps fail to receive the message. Parameters: command-a string that indicates the command used to send the native application.

Throws: COException If the specific application cannot be thrown. Parameters: app-COApp name to be added to the backplane.

Throws: COException if COApp cannot be added. Parameters: app-COApp name to be removed from the backplane. Throws: COException If you can’t remove COApp. Parameters: app-reference to COApp to be closed Throws: COException if COApp cannot be closed. public void closeAllApps throws COException Close all unique running COApps; clear runningApps. Throws: COException if COApp cannot be closed.

Parameters: state-an integer value indicating a fixed window state Throws: COException When all window states cannot be set. Adds app to runningApps if it is not already in execution. Parameters: app-reference to COApp to be sent Throws: COException if COApp cannot be sent. If the Parameters: app is registered correctly, it is correct. If it doesn’t exist, build it. Returns: Global statistics object for backplane. Returns: Global credential object for backplane.

If it does not exist, Build it using the COLog constructor. Returns: Global log object for backplane. Returns: Global configuration object for backplane. COApp is the standard COA The ppFrame can be used as a container for COView s that are notified of updates to business objects COMModels instantiated by COApps eg, appHyperScope.

The model also has a list of COParm objects that contains the headers of messages from asynchronous transactions other than those sent to COApp by the inbox. Synchronous responses from backend services are processed as they are received. init ;と appHyperScope. execute specificService, byteArrayOfData ; Example code for the use of COApp is shown.

A specific COApp is dispatched by the backplane when an application icon on the AppBar is clicked. The backplane then calls the COApp’s applet-like start routine. init ; and appHyperScope. start ; One COApp can communicate with other COApps including the inbox via the backplane by instantiating a message object of the COParm class. processMessge message ; COApp can perform both synchronous and asynchronous transactions.

Synchronous transactions involve direct service requests. You can spawn a new thread in which you can execute transactions concurrently. execute specificService, byteArrayOfData ;. ximizeApp , tileApp , placeApp , app RequestFocus , appToFront , appToBac You must define a method for k. Backplane is getWin Since it depends on the exact window count using dowCount , The window count must also be set for each application that uses setWindowCount exactly.

Returns: COApp instance name, null if not set. The information in the application description is used by the standard app frame. Returns: COBackPlane belonging to the COApp instance, null if not set. Returns: User context object, null if not set. Applications should ignore methods that deal with multiple frames and public interactions. Individual applications should ignore cases where there is interaction with multiple application frames and when the application is not tiled, eg COToolbar.

The method always returns to failure. Parameters: r-Square that the backplane shows the amount of actual state of the screen assigned to the application Returns: Correct if possible, otherwise incorrect. Also, if this method is ignored and the method returns to a simple fraud, COToo, which is similar to a pseudo COApp for tiling, is used. lbar does not happen. The application moves the application’s window to one of the given locations.

Parameters: positions-an array of points going from left to right, top to bottom. This is a Container. It can be easily accomplished with a call to top, but each application developer must properly ignore this method.

The current method reverts to the default value of 5 required for correct cascading. Each application needs to define how it behaves if the application has multiple windows or public interactions. Each application needs to define how it operates, as described above.

called by e. BackPlane belongs to a COApp instance. Set the user context object and the object will be BackPlane Is the same as the COUSer instance of. Each application must define methods for itself. Parameters: message-COApp encapsulates the message to be passed. Throws: if it fails to process COException message. This information is needed for correct tiling and cascading. The default effect for this method is to set it back to zero. For example, Applications such as primary toolbars that need to minimize tiling or performing method zeroing.

COBackPl ane can call getWindowCount to get the correct window count for each application. Throws: COException if the application cannot be closed.

It is always called before the start method is first called. A subclass of COApp, if initialized to run, Ignore this method. The implementation of the methods provided by the COApp class is meaningless.

It is called after the init method. COApp subclasses ignore this method if the class has any operations that it wishes to perform at the beginning of the implementation. This method is generally called CO, as COApp is typically run continuously. For App it is less important than for applet. It is called, for example, just before the applet is destroyed.

Similar to the stard method, this method calls COApp Is generally more serially executed, so it is generally more important for COApps than for applets. Part of. The stop method is Always called before destruction. COApp subclasses ignore methods if they have an operation that they wish to perform before they are destroyed.

For example, a COApp with threads uses the init method to create a thread and destroy the method that invalidates the thread. The implementation of the methods provided by COApp is meaningless. To implement the interface, but with an applet-like interface. The COAppImpl class has the functionality of all applets except those that derive from the panel and therefore do not have a display space based on their own browser.

COAppImpl is a standard COAppFrame or C The OStandardAppFrame can be used as a container as a display component such as COView s. set Provided by COApp using the BackPlnae method. Returns: Instance name of COApp, null if not set. Returns: Application description object, null if not set. Returns: Inbox item header, null if not set.

Returns: Vector of AsyncResponse objects for asynchronous transactions, null if not set. Applications should ignore methods that possibly deal with multiple frames and open interactions. Individual applications must be ignored for multiple application frames, interactions, and even if the application should not be tiled, such as a toolbar. This method always returns to error. Parameters: r-a square that indicates the amount of actual state of the screen the backplane has assigned to the application.

Returns: Correct if it can be executed, otherwise incorrect. Also, applications such as COToolbar, which is a pseudo-app that does not cause tiling, should ignore the methods that return simple illicitly. The application must then move each application window to one of the predetermined locations. Parameters: position-an array of points going up, down, left and right. The search is Container. This can easily be achieved by calling top, but the developer of each application must properly ignore the method.

The current method reverts to the default value of 5, which is necessary for correct cascading. Each application needs to define how to work when the application has multiple windows or open interactions.

Each application needs to define a work method as described above. Called by the backplane after the BackPlane settings have been activated. Returns: Null if no log is defined. Returns: Null if the application-specified statistical object is not defined. Returns: Null if the application-specific configuration object is not defined. This method is the backplane couse Same as r instance.

Each application must define a method for itself. Throws: COException app, if the message processing fails. This method processes the data from the inbox using the inbox item ID. This method performs inbox processing, p processMessage can be used to separate from generic inter-application communication. Parameters: itemID-COParm encapsulates the ID for the inbox item. Throws: COException if the item could not be retrieved.

You need to use a method to return to a meaningful « idle time ». In general, a method is called whenever a user’s event is received, but is not necessarily limited to receiving. Information is needed for correct tiling and cascading.

The default effect on the method reverts to zero. Called by ne. This method is always called before the start method is first called. COApp subclasses ignore methods when initialized for execution. The call is made after the init method. A subclass of COApp ignores a method if it has an operation that it wants to perform at the beginning of execution. This method is generally not as important to applets as to COApps, since COApps are generally executed serially.

Some are called, for example, just before the applet is destroyed. Like the start method, this method calls COApp However, it is generally less important to COApps and to COApps than to applets, since they are typically run serially.

The stop method is always called before it is destroyed. COApp Subclasses of should ignore the method if they wish to be executed before they are destroyed. For example, COApp with threads is init Use the method to spawn a thread and destroy the method to invalidate the thread.

The implementation of the method provided by the COApp class uses the command di to remove all registered windows. Meaningless, except calling sposeAllChildren. Throws: COException if the application could not be closed. The implementation always returns to the correct one.

COApp subclasses ignore the method. Returns: Null if not set. Execute the COApp interface by extending the Applet and sending various calls to the contained COAppImpl object.

Extend public class COApplet and execute COApp. Returns: User context, null if not set. Throws: COException if the app fails to process the message. Overrides: setEnabled in the component class. Overrides: init in class applet. Overrides: start in class applet. Overrides: stop in the class applet. Overrides: destroy in the class applet. The class has a set layout consisting of a menu bar attached to the main view window and possibly a toolbar. The area of the main view returns as a panel, on top of which COApp puts the screen the application wants.

Try to fit the screen size. Returns: Null if no ownership is set. Parameters: addto-menu to which other menus are added menu-the menu to be added. Overrides: The window is closed in the class COFrame. Throws: Throwable If there is a problem during completion. Overrides: Completed in class object.

The data can be retrieved by name using the methods described in the specification and by listing the names using the methods of the hashtable class. Throws: COException If the name of one of the given name-value pairs is not a string. This method is used to establish a connection after a successful logon. This method is used to establish a connection to the backend service after a successful logon. Transaction COTransaction instance is Java When sending a message, this method is started to monitor the transaction in addition to the connection transaction.

When the Java message is sent, the session stops monitoring the transaction instance. If the method is associated with the corresponding session instance, the COCIentjSession. connect All input streams instances that derive from the input stream retrieved from a COConnection instance accessed through are associated with the corresponding session instance.

Therefore, the input stream is useInp It was influenced by the utTimers method. See useInputTimers above. The setMaxDeatTi Refer to me.

This method is also used by transactions, It is not meant to be used outside the context. After the method is called, the session instance will be refreshed until a new logon is made. It can no longer be used for transactions. The following lists the COUSer class methods. Parameters: username-username password-password. Parameters: username-username password-password enterpriseID-company ID.

Parameters: username-user name password-password enterpriseID-company ID timeZone-time zone. Parameters: uid-numeric user ID username-username password-password. Returns: User ID number. Returns: User name. Returns: User password. Returns: Company ID. Returns: Time zone. Returns: User profile. Parameters: password-user password.

Parameters: enterpriseID-company ID. Parameters: timeZone-time zone. Parameters: entitlement-qualification. getUser ; 【0104】 COClientSessionオブジェクトのログオンメソッドは、ユーザを 認証するためのバックエンドの認証機構であるオーダ入力サーバと通信すること である。 The COClientSession object’s logon method is to communicate with the order input server, which is the backend authentication mechanism for authenticating the user.

incrementValue « Communicatins2Server » ; 【0138】 セキュリティ 本発明により、パックプレーンとクライアントのアプリケーションは、特定の コードに結び付けること無しで、ブラウザ内蔵セキュリティ機能を利用すること ができる。本発明は、既製品で間に合う特定のブラウザのセキュリティ機能を包 み込む追加のモジュールを提供する。 Security The present invention allows packplane and client applications to utilize browser built-in security features without having to bind them to specific code.

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Editors in good standing in the community can request extra user rights , granting them the technical ability to perform certain special actions. In particular, editors can choose to run for  » adminship « , [] [] which includes the ability to delete pages or prevent them from being changed in cases of severe vandalism or editorial disputes. Administrators are not supposed to enjoy any special privilege in decision-making; instead, their powers are mostly limited to making edits that have project-wide effects and thus are disallowed to ordinary editors, and to implement restrictions intended to prevent disruptive editors from making unproductive edits.

By , fewer editors were becoming administrators compared to Wikipedia’s earlier years, in part because the process of vetting potential administrators had become more rigorous.

Over time, Wikipedia has developed a semiformal dispute resolution process. To determine community consensus, editors can raise issues at appropriate community forums, seek outside input through third opinion requests, or initiate a more general community discussion known as a « request for comment ». Wikipedia encourages local resolutions of conflicts, which Jemielniak argues is quite unique in organization studies, though there has been some recent interest in consensus building in the field.

Joseph Reagle and Sue Gardner argue that the approaches to consensus building are similar to those used by Quakers. The Arbitration Committee presides over the ultimate dispute resolution process. Although disputes usually arise from a disagreement between two opposing views on how an article should read, the Arbitration Committee explicitly refuses to directly rule on the specific view that should be adopted.

Statistical analyses suggest that the committee ignores the content of disputes and rather focuses on the way disputes are conducted, [] functioning not so much to resolve disputes and make peace between conflicting editors, but to weed out problematic editors while allowing potentially productive editors back in to participate.

Therefore, the committee does not dictate the content of articles, although it sometimes condemns content changes when it deems the new content violates Wikipedia policies for example, if the new content is considered biased. When conduct is not impersonation or anti-social, but rather anti-consensus or in violation of editing policies, remedies tend to be limited to warnings. Each article and each user of Wikipedia has an associated and dedicated « talk » page.

These form the primary communication channel for editors to discuss, coordinate and debate. Wikipedia’s community has been described as cultlike , [] although not always with entirely negative connotations. Wikipedians sometimes award one another « virtual barnstars » for good work. These personalized tokens of appreciation reveal a wide range of valued work extending far beyond simple editing to include social support, administrative actions, and types of articulation work.

Wikipedia does not require that its editors and contributors provide identification. The English Wikipedia has 6,, articles, 44,, registered editors, and , active editors. An editor is considered active if they have made one or more edits in the past 30 days.

Editors who fail to comply with Wikipedia cultural rituals, such as signing talk page comments, may implicitly signal that they are Wikipedia outsiders, increasing the odds that Wikipedia insiders may target or discount their contributions.

Becoming a Wikipedia insider involves non-trivial costs: the contributor is expected to learn Wikipedia-specific technological codes, submit to a sometimes convoluted dispute resolution process, and learn a « baffling culture rich with in-jokes and insider references ». A study by researchers from Dartmouth College found that « anonymous and infrequent contributors to Wikipedia A study found that Wikipedians were less agreeable, open, and conscientious than others, [] [] although a later commentary pointed out serious flaws, including that the data showed higher openness and that the differences with the control group and the samples were small.

Several studies have shown that most Wikipedia contributors are male. Notably, the results of a Wikimedia Foundation survey in showed that only 13 percent of Wikipedia editors were female. Similarly, many of these universities, including Yale and Brown , gave college credit to students who create or edit an article relating to women in science or technology. Distribution of the 60,, articles in different language editions as of December 9, []. There are currently language editions of Wikipedia also called language versions , or simply Wikipedias.

The latter are both languages of the Philippines. In addition to the top six, twelve other Wikipedias have more than a million articles each Russian , Spanish , Italian , Egyptian Arabic , Polish , Japanese , Chinese , Vietnamese , Waray , Ukrainian , Arabic and Portuguese , seven more have over , articles Persian , Catalan , Serbian , Indonesian , Korean , Norwegian and Finnish , 44 more have over ,, and 82 more have over 10, Since Wikipedia is based on the Web and therefore worldwide, contributors to the same language edition may use different dialects or may come from different countries as is the case for the English edition.

These differences may lead to some conflicts over spelling differences e. Though the various language editions are held to global policies such as « neutral point of view », they diverge on some points of policy and practice, most notably on whether images that are not licensed freely may be used under a claim of fair use.

Jimmy Wales has described Wikipedia as « an effort to create and distribute a free encyclopedia of the highest possible quality to every single person on the planet in their own language ». They are coordinated in part by Meta-Wiki, the Wikimedia Foundation’s wiki devoted to maintaining all its projects Wikipedia and others.

It is not rare for articles strongly related to a particular language not to have counterparts in another edition. For example, articles about small towns in the United States might be available only in English, even when they meet the notability criteria of other language Wikipedia projects. Translated articles represent only a small portion of articles in most editions, in part because those editions do not allow fully automated translation of articles.

Articles available in more than one language may offer « interwiki links », which link to the counterpart articles in other editions. A study published by PLOS One in also estimated the share of contributions to different editions of Wikipedia from different regions of the world. On March 1, , The Economist , in an article titled « The Future of Wikipedia », cited a trend analysis concerning data published by the Wikimedia Foundation stating that « [t]he number of editors for the English-language version has fallen by a third in seven years.

The Economist reported that the number of contributors with an average of five or more edits per month was relatively constant since for Wikipedia in other languages at approximately 42, editors within narrow seasonal variances of about 2, editors up or down.

The number of active editors in English Wikipedia, by sharp comparison, was cited as peaking in at approximately 50, and dropping to 30, by the start of In contrast, the trend analysis published in The Economist presents Wikipedia in other languages non-English Wikipedia as successful in retaining their active editors on a renewable and sustained basis, with their numbers remaining relatively constant at approximately 42, Various Wikipedians have criticized Wikipedia’s large and growing regulation , which includes more than fifty policies and nearly , words as of Critics have stated that Wikipedia exhibits systemic bias.

In , columnist and journalist Edwin Black described Wikipedia as being a mixture of « truth, half-truth, and some falsehoods ». Journalists Oliver Kamm and Edwin Black alleged in and respectively that articles are dominated by the loudest and most persistent voices, usually by a group with an « ax to grind » on the topic. In , Omer Benjakob and Stephen Harrison noted that « Media coverage of Wikipedia has radically shifted over the past two decades: once cast as an intellectual frivolity, it is now lauded as the ‘last bastion of shared reality’ online.

In , libertarian John Stossel opined that Wikipedia, a site he financially supported at one time, appears to have gradually taken a significant turn in bias to the political left, specifically on political topics. In , the Wikipedia Watch criticism website listed dozens of examples of plagiarism in the English Wikipedia. As a consequence of the open structure, Wikipedia « makes no guarantee of validity » of its content, since no one is ultimately responsible for any claims appearing in it.

Economist Tyler Cowen wrote: « If I had to guess whether Wikipedia or the median refereed journal article on economics was more likely to be true after a not so long think I would opt for Wikipedia. However, he also cautions that errors are frequently found on Internet sites and that academics and experts must be vigilant in correcting them.

Critics argue that Wikipedia’s open nature and a lack of proper sources for most of the information makes it unreliable. Wikipedia’s open structure inherently makes it an easy target for Internet trolls , spammers , and various forms of paid advocacy seen as counterproductive to the maintenance of a neutral and verifiable online encyclopedia. Katherine Maher , the nonprofit Wikimedia Foundation’s chief communications officer, said the changes address a sentiment among volunteer editors that, ‘we’re not an advertising service; we’re an encyclopedia.

Legal Research in a Nutshell , cites Wikipedia as a « general source » that « can be a real boon » in « coming up to speed in the law governing a situation » and, « while not authoritative, can provide basic facts as well as leads to more in-depth resources ». Most university lecturers discourage students from citing any encyclopedia in academic work , preferring primary sources ; [] some specifically prohibit Wikipedia citations.

In February , an article in The Harvard Crimson newspaper reported that a few of the professors at Harvard University were including Wikipedia articles in their syllabi , although without realizing the articles might change. In contrast, academic writing [ clarification needed ] in Wikipedia has evolved in recent years and has been found to increase student interest, personal connection to the product, creativity in material processing, and international collaboration in the learning process.

On March 5, , Julie Beck writing for The Atlantic magazine in an article titled « Doctors’ 1 Source for Healthcare Information: Wikipedia », stated that « Fifty percent of physicians look up conditions on the Wikipedia site, and some are editing articles themselves to improve the quality of available information.

Heilman, who has participated in that process before, says ‘less than one percent’ of Wikipedia’s medical articles have passed. Wikipedia seeks to create a summary of all human knowledge in the form of an online encyclopedia, with each topic covered encyclopedically in one article. Since it has terabytes of disk space, it can have far more topics than can be covered by any printed encyclopedia. The « Wikipedia is not censored » policy has sometimes proved controversial: in , Wikipedia rejected an online petition against the inclusion of images of Muhammad in the English edition of its Muhammad article, citing this policy.

The presence of politically, religiously, and pornographically sensitive materials in Wikipedia has led to the censorship of Wikipedia by national authorities in China [] and Pakistan, [] amongst other countries.

A study conducted by researchers at Carnegie Mellon University and Palo Alto Research Center gave a distribution of topics as well as growth from July to January in each field: []. These numbers refer only to the number of articles: it is possible for one topic to contain a large number of short articles and another to contain a small number of large ones.

Through its « Wikipedia Loves Libraries » program, Wikipedia has partnered with major public libraries such as the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts to expand its coverage of underrepresented subjects and articles. A study conducted by researchers at the University of Minnesota indicated that male and female editors focus on different coverage topics. There was a greater concentration of females in the « people and arts » category, while males focus more on « geography and science ».

Research conducted by Mark Graham of the Oxford Internet Institute in indicated that the geographic distribution of article topics is highly uneven. Africa is the most underrepresented. An editorial in The Guardian in claimed that more effort went into providing references for a list of female porn actors than a list of women writers. When multiple editors contribute to one topic or set of topics, systemic bias may arise, due to the demographic backgrounds of the editors.

In , Wales claimed that the unevenness of coverage is a reflection of the demography of the editors, citing for example « biographies of famous women through history and issues surrounding early childcare ». Systemic bias on Wikipedia may follow that of culture generally, [ vague ] for example favoring certain nationalities, ethnicities or majority religions.

Biases, intrinsically, may include an overemphasis on topics such as pop culture, technology, and current events. Taha Yasseri of the University of Oxford , in , studied the statistical trends of systemic bias at Wikipedia introduced by editing conflicts and their resolution.

Such a « mutually reverting edit pair » is defined where one editor reverts the edit of another editor who then, in sequence, returns to revert the first editor in the « mutually reverting edit pairs ». The results were tabulated for several language versions of Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia’s three largest conflict rates belonged to the articles George W. Bush , anarchism , and Muhammad. Researchers from Washington University developed a statistical model to measure systematic bias in the behavior of Wikipedia’s users regarding controversial topics.

The authors focused on behavioral changes of the encyclopedia’s administrators after assuming the post, writing that systematic bias occurred after the fact. Wikipedia has been criticized for allowing information about graphic content. Articles depicting what some critics have called objectionable content such as feces , cadaver , human penis , vulva , and nudity contain graphic pictures and detailed information easily available to anyone with access to the internet, including children.

The site also includes sexual content such as images and videos of masturbation and ejaculation , illustrations of zoophilia , and photos from hardcore pornographic films in its articles. It also has non-sexual photographs of nude children. The Wikipedia article about Virgin Killer —a album from the German rock band Scorpions —features a picture of the album’s original cover, which depicts a naked prepubescent girl.

The original release cover caused controversy and was replaced in some countries. In December , access to the Wikipedia article Virgin Killer was blocked for four days by most Internet service providers in the United Kingdom after the Internet Watch Foundation IWF decided the album cover was a potentially illegal indecent image and added the article’s URL to a « blacklist » it supplies to British internet service providers.

In April , Sanger wrote a letter to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, outlining his concerns that two categories of images on Wikimedia Commons contained child pornography, and were in violation of US federal obscenity law. If we did, we would remove it. After some editors who volunteered to maintain the site argued that the decision to delete had been made hastily, Wales voluntarily gave up some of the powers he had held up to that time as part of his co-founder status.

One privacy concern in the case of Wikipedia is the right of a private citizen to remain a « private citizen » rather than a  » public figure  » in the eyes of the law. A particular problem occurs in the case of a relatively unimportant individual and for whom there exists a Wikipedia page against her or his wishes. In January , a German court ordered the German Wikipedia shut down within Germany because it stated the full name of Boris Floricic , aka « Tron », a deceased hacker.

On February 9, , the injunction against Wikimedia Deutschland was overturned, with the court rejecting the notion that Tron’s right to privacy or that of his parents was being violated. Wikipedia has a  » Volunteer Response Team  » that uses Znuny, a free and open-source software fork of OTRS [] to handle queries without having to reveal the identities of the involved parties.

This is used, for example, in confirming the permission for using individual images and other media in the project. Wikipedia was described in as harboring a battleground culture of sexism and harassment. The perceived toxic attitudes and tolerance of violent and abusive language were reasons put forth in for the gender gap in Wikipedia editorship. Edit-a-thons have been held to encourage female editors and increase the coverage of women’s topics. A comprehensive survey, published in , by Julia B.

Bear of Stony Brook University ‘s College of Business and Benjamin Collier of Carnegie Mellon University found significant gender differences in: confidence in expertise, discomfort with editing, and response to critical feedback. Wikipedia is hosted and funded by the Wikimedia Foundation , a non-profit organization which also operates Wikipedia-related projects such as Wiktionary and Wikibooks. The foundation relies on public contributions and grants to fund its mission.

We are reinforcing that paid advocacy is not welcome. Following the departure of Tretikov from Wikipedia due to issues concerning the use of the « superprotection » feature which some language versions of Wikipedia have adopted, Katherine Maher became the third executive director of the Wikimedia Foundation in June Maher stated regarding the harassment issue that: « It establishes a sense within the community that this is a priority Maher served as executive director until April Wikipedia is also supported by many organizations and groups that are affiliated with the Wikimedia Foundation but independently-run, called Wikimedia movement affiliates.

These affiliates participate in the promotion, development, and funding of Wikipedia. The Phase II software was repeatedly modified to accommodate the exponentially increasing demand.

Several MediaWiki extensions are installed [] to extend the functionality of the MediaWiki software. Lucene was later replaced by CirrusSearch which is based on Elasticsearch. Computer programs called bots have often been used to perform simple and repetitive tasks, such as correcting common misspellings and stylistic issues, or to start articles such as geography entries in a standard format from statistical data.

An anti-vandal bot is programmed to detect and revert vandalism quickly. According to Andrew Lih , the current expansion of Wikipedia to millions of articles would be difficult to envision without the use of such bots. Wikipedia receives between 25, and 60,page requests per second, depending on the time of the day. The web servers deliver pages as requested, performing page rendering for all the language editions of Wikipedia.

To increase speed further, rendered pages are cached in a distributed memory cache until invalidated, allowing page rendering to be skipped entirely for most common page accesses. Wikipedia currently runs on dedicated clusters of Linux servers running the Debian operating system. Following growing amounts of incoming donations exceeding seven digits in as recently reported, [50] the Foundation has reached a threshold of assets which qualify its consideration under the principles of industrial organization economics to indicate the need for the re-investment of donations into the internal research and development of the Foundation.

Community-produced news publications include the English Wikipedia ‘s The Signpost , founded in by Michael Snow, an attorney, Wikipedia administrator, and former chair of the Wikimedia Foundation board of trustees.

There are also several publications from the Wikimedia Foundation and multilingual publications such as Wikimedia Diff and This Month in Education.

The Wikipedia Library is a resource for Wikipedia editors which provides free access to a wide range of digital publications , so that they can consult and cite these while editing the encyclopedia. When the project was started in , all text in Wikipedia was covered by the GNU Free Documentation License GFDL , a copyleft license permitting the redistribution, creation of derivative works, and commercial use of content while authors retain copyright of their work.

This made it a poor choice for a general reference work: for example, the GFDL requires the reprints of materials from Wikipedia to come with a full copy of the GFDL text. In December , the Creative Commons license was released: it was specifically designed for creative works in general, not just for software manuals.

The license gained popularity among bloggers and others distributing creative works on the Web. The Wikipedia project sought the switch to the Creative Commons. In April , Wikipedia and its sister projects held a community-wide referendum which decided the switch in June The handling of media files e.

Some language editions, such as the English Wikipedia, include non-free image files under fair use doctrine, while the others have opted not to, in part because of the lack of fair use doctrines in their home countries e. Media files covered by free content licenses e. Wikipedia’s accommodation of varying international copyright laws regarding images has led some to observe that its photographic coverage of topics lags behind the quality of the encyclopedic text.

Because Wikipedia content is distributed under an open license, anyone can reuse or re-distribute it at no charge. The content of Wikipedia has been published in many forms, both online and offline, outside the Wikipedia website. Obtaining the full contents of Wikipedia for reuse presents challenges, since direct cloning via a web crawler is discouraged.

Several languages of Wikipedia also maintain a reference desk, where volunteers answer questions from the general public. According to a study by Pnina Shachaf in the Journal of Documentation , the quality of the Wikipedia reference desk is comparable to a standard library reference desk , with an accuracy of 55 percent. Wikipedia’s original medium was for users to read and edit content using any standard web browser through a fixed Internet connection.

And the shift to mobile editing has lagged even more. One principal concern cited by The New York Times for the « worry » is for Wikipedia to effectively address attrition issues with the number of editors which the online encyclopedia attracts to edit and maintain its content in a mobile access environment.

Bloomberg Businessweek reported in July that Google’s Android mobile apps have dominated the largest share of global smartphone shipments for with Directly after the posted web interview, the representatives stated that Wikimedia would be applying an all-inclusive approach to accommodate as many mobile access systems as possible in its efforts for expanding general mobile access, including BlackBerry and the Windows Phone system, making market share a secondary issue.

In June Wikipedia launched en. In a newer mobile service was officially released, [] located at en. Several other methods of mobile access to Wikipedia have emerged. Many devices and applications optimize or enhance the display of Wikipedia content for mobile devices, while some also incorporate additional features such as use of Wikipedia metadata , such as geoinformation.

Wikipedia Zero was an initiative of the Wikimedia Foundation to expand the reach of the encyclopedia to the developing countries. Andrew Lih and Andrew Brown both maintain editing Wikipedia with smartphones is difficult and this discourages new potential contributors. The number of Wikipedia editors has been declining after several years and Tom Simonite of MIT Technology Review claims the bureaucratic structure and rules are a factor in this.

Simonite alleges some Wikipedians use the labyrinthine rules and guidelines to dominate others and those editors have a vested interest in keeping the status quo. Lih fears for Wikipedia’s long-term future while Brown fears problems with Wikipedia will remain and rival encyclopedias will not replace it.

Access to the Chinese Wikipedia has been blocked in mainland China since May In , Quartz reported that the Chinese government had begun creating an unofficial version of Wikipedia. However, unlike Wikipedia, the website’s contents would only be editable by scholars from state-owned Chinese institutions. The article stated it had been approved by the State Council of the People’s Republic of China in In —18, after a barrage of false news reports, both Facebook and YouTube announced they would rely on Wikipedia to help their users evaluate reports and reject false news.

Noam Cohen , writing in The Washington Post states, « YouTube’s reliance on Wikipedia to set the record straight builds on the thinking of another fact-challenged platform, the Facebook social network, which announced last year that Wikipedia would help its users root out ‘ fake news ‘. In February , The New York Times reported that Wikipedia was ranked fifth globally among all websites, stating « With 18 billion page views and nearly million unique visitors a month, Wikipedia trails just Yahoo, Facebook, Microsoft and Google, the largest with 1.

In addition to logistic growth in the number of its articles, [] Wikipedia has steadily gained status as a general reference website since its inception in According to « Wikipedia Readership Survey « , the average age of Wikipedia readers is 36, with a rough parity between genders. Almost half of Wikipedia readers visit the site more than five times a month, and a similar number of readers specifically look for Wikipedia in search engine results.

About 47 percent of Wikipedia readers do not realize that Wikipedia is a non-profit organization. During the COVID pandemic , Wikipedia’s coverage of the pandemic received international media attention, and brought an increase in Wikipedia readership overall. Wikipedia’s content has also been used in academic studies, books, conferences, and court cases.

Wikipedia has also been used as a source in journalism, [] [] often without attribution, and several reporters have been dismissed for plagiarizing from Wikipedia. In , Time magazine recognized Wikipedia’s participation along with YouTube , Reddit , MySpace , and Facebook [] in the rapid growth of online collaboration and interaction by millions of people worldwide.

In July , Wikipedia was the focus of a minute documentary on BBC Radio 4 [] which argued that, with increased usage and awareness, the number of references to Wikipedia in popular culture is such that the word is one of a select group of 21st-century nouns that are so familiar Google , Facebook , YouTube that they no longer need explanation. On September 28, , Italian politician Franco Grillini raised a parliamentary question with the minister of cultural resources and activities about the necessity of freedom of panorama.

He said that the lack of such freedom forced Wikipedia, « the seventh most consulted website », to forbid all images of modern Italian buildings and art, and claimed this was hugely damaging to tourist revenues. On September 16, , The Washington Post reported that Wikipedia had become a focal point in the US election campaign , saying: « Type a candidate’s name into Google, and among the first results is a Wikipedia page, making those entries arguably as important as any ad in defining a candidate.

Already, the presidential entries are being edited, dissected and debated countless times each day. Active participation also has an impact. Law students have been assigned to write Wikipedia articles as an exercise in clear and succinct writing for an uninitiated audience. A working group led by Peter Stone formed as a part of the Stanford -based project One Hundred Year Study on Artificial Intelligence in its report called Wikipedia « the best-known example of crowdsourcing In a opinion piece for Wired , Hossein Derakhshan describes Wikipedia as « one of the last remaining pillars of the open and decentralized web  » and contrasted its existence as a text-based source of knowledge with social media and social networking services , the latter having « since colonized the web for television’s values ».

For Derakhshan, Wikipedia’s goal as an encyclopedia represents the Age of Enlightenment tradition of rationality triumphing over emotions, a trend which he considers « endangered » due to the « gradual shift from a typographic culture to a photographic one, which in turn mean[s] a shift from rationality to emotions, exposition to entertainment ». Rather than  » sapere aude  » lit. This is while Wikipedia faces « a more concerning problem » than funding, namely « a flattening growth rate in the number of contributors to the website ».

Consequently, the challenge for Wikipedia and those who use it is to « save Wikipedia and its promise of a free and open collection of all human knowledge amid the conquest of new and old television—how to collect and preserve knowledge when nobody cares to know. Wikipedia won two major awards in May The second was a Judges’ Webby Award for the « community » category. In , readers of brandchannel.

The award was presented to Wales by David Weinberger. In , Wikipedia was awarded both the annual Erasmus Prize , which recognizes exceptional contributions to culture, society or social sciences, [] and the Spanish Princess of Asturias Award on International Cooperation. Many parodies target Wikipedia’s openness and susceptibility to inserted inaccuracies, with characters vandalizing or modifying the online encyclopedia project’s articles.

Comedian Stephen Colbert has parodied or referenced Wikipedia on numerous episodes of his show The Colbert Report and coined the related term wikiality , meaning « together we can create a reality that we all agree on—the reality we just agreed on ». In an April episode of the American television comedy The Office , office manager Michael Scott is shown relying on a hypothetical Wikipedia article for information on negotiation tactics to assist him in negotiating lesser pay for an employee.

In , the comedy website CollegeHumor produced a video sketch named « Professor Wikipedia », in which the fictitious Professor Wikipedia instructs a class with a medley of unverifiable and occasionally absurd statements. The Dilbert comic strip from May 8, , features a character supporting an improbable claim by saying « Give me ten minutes and then check Wikipedia.

Some of the sketches were directly inspired by Wikipedia and its articles. On August 23, , the New Yorker website published a cartoon with this caption: « Dammit, Manning , have you considered the pronoun war that this is going to start on your Wikipedia page?

In December , John Julius Norwich stated, in a letter published in The Times newspaper, that as a historian he resorted to Wikipedia « at least a dozen times a day », and had never yet caught it out. He described it as « a work of reference as useful as any in existence », with so wide a range that it is almost impossible to find a person, place, or thing that it has left uncovered and that he could never have written his last two books without it.

Wikipedia has spawned several sister projects, which are also wikis run by the Wikimedia Foundation. These other Wikimedia projects include Wiktionary , a dictionary project launched in December , [] Wikiquote , a collection of quotations created a week after Wikimedia launched, Wikibooks , a collection of collaboratively written free textbooks and annotated texts, Wikimedia Commons , a site devoted to free-knowledge multimedia, Wikinews , for citizen journalism, and Wikiversity , a project for the creation of free learning materials and the provision of online learning activities.

In Wikivoyage , an editable travel guide, and Wikidata , an editable knowledge base, launched. The most obvious economic effect of Wikipedia has been the death of commercial encyclopedias, especially the printed versions, e. Carr wrote: « Implicit in the ecstatic visions of Web 2.

I for one can’t imagine anything more frightening. For instance, Chris Anderson , the editor-in-chief of Wired Magazine , wrote in Nature that the  » wisdom of crowds  » approach of Wikipedia will not displace top scientific journals , with their rigorous peer review process. There is also an ongoing debate about the influence of Wikipedia on the biography publishing business. Wikipedia has been widely used as a corpus for linguistic research in computational linguistics , information retrieval and natural language processing.

In particular, it commonly serves as a target knowledge base for the entity linking problem, which is then called « wikification », [] and to the related problem of word-sense disambiguation.

A MIT study suggests that words used on Wikipedia articles end up in scientific publications. Studies related to Wikipedia have been using machine learning and artificial intelligence to support various operations.

One of the most important areas—automatic detection of vandalism [] [] and data quality assessment in Wikipedia. In February , civil servants from the UK’s Department for Levelling Up, Housing and Communities were found to have used Wikipedia for research in the drafting of the Levelling Up White Paper after journalists at The Independent noted that parts of the document had been lifted directly from Wikipedia articles on Constantinople and the list of largest cities throughout history.

Several interactive multimedia encyclopedias incorporating entries written by the public existed long before Wikipedia was founded. This was the first interactive multimedia encyclopedia and was also the first major multimedia document connected through internal links , with the majority of articles being accessible through an interactive map of the UK.

The user interface and part of the content of the Domesday Project were emulated on a website until Several free-content, collaborative encyclopedias were created around the same period as Wikipedia e. Everything2 , [] with many later being merged into the project e. The h2g2 encyclopedia is relatively lighthearted, focusing on articles which are both witty and informative. Subsequent collaborative knowledge websites have drawn inspiration from Wikipedia. Others use more traditional peer review , such as Encyclopedia of Life and the online wiki encyclopedias Scholarpedia and Citizendium.

The latter was started by Sanger in an attempt to create a reliable alternative to Wikipedia. See also: Logic machines in fiction and List of fictional computers. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Free multilingual online encyclopedia. This article is about the online encyclopedia. For Wikipedia’s home page, see Main Page. For other uses, see Wikipedia disambiguation.

The logo of Wikipedia , a globe featuring glyphs from various writing systems. Wikipedia’s desktop homepage. Wikimedia Foundation. Jimmy Wales Larry Sanger [1]. Main article: History of Wikipedia. Main article: Nupedia. Wikipedia founders Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger.

Number of English Wikipedia articles [32]. Main article: Vandalism on Wikipedia. For the Wikipedia policy, see Wikipedia:Five pillars. Further information: Wikipedia:Administration. Main article: Arbitration Committee. Main article: Wikipedia community. Main article: List of Wikipedias.


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